A photograph looking up from the streets of New York City.

New York City, one of the world's most vibrant examples of downtown. (Image courtesy of Keith McCluskey, ©


MIT Course Number

21H.234J / 11.339J / 11.026J

As Taught In

Spring 2005


Undergraduate / Graduate

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Course Description

Course Features

Course Highlights

This course includes archived syllabi from various semesters.

Course Description

This seminar focuses on downtowns in U.S. cities from the late nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. Emphasis will be placed on downtown as an idea, place, and cluster of interests; on the changing character of downtown; and on recent efforts to rebuild it. Subjects to be considered will include subways, skyscrapers, highways, urban renewal, and retail centers. The focus will be on readings, discussions, and individual research projects.

Related Content

Bernard Frieden, and Robert Fogelson. 21H.234J Downtown. Spring 2005. Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT OpenCourseWare, License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA.

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