Basic References

Those who wish to enlarge their knowledge of subjects mentioned in this unit will find the following two reference sources especially useful:

(1) The database of the Ohara Institute for Social Research at Hosei University. In addition to thousands of posters and other graphics, extending into the early postwar years, this excellent website includes English captions as well as considerable English-language commentary.

(2) Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, 8 volumes plus a separate index volume (Kodansha, 1983). This is far and away the best single English-language encyclopedia on Japan, containing over 10,000 entries including long essays on major subjects. Kodansha published a compressed and lavishly illustrated two-volume version of this reference work in 1993 under the title Japan: An Illustrated Encyclopedia.


Beckmann, George and Okubo Genji, The Japanese Communist Party, 1922-1945
(Stanford University Press, 1969).

Colegrove, Kenneth, “The Japanese General Election of 1928,” Foreign Affairs 22.2
(May 1928).

Colegrove, Kenneth, “Labor Parties in Japan,” American Political Science Review 23.2
(May 1929)

Duus, Peter and Irwin Scheiner, “Socialism, Liberalism, and Marxism, 1901-1931,” in
Peter Duus, ed., Cambridge History of Japan, vol. 6: The Twentieth Century (University of Cambridge Press, 1988).

Garon, Sheldon, The State and Labor in Modern Japan (University of California Press,

Garon, Sheldon, The Evolution of Civil Society from Meiji to Heisei (Westherhead Center for International Studies, Harvard University, 2002).

Gordon, Andrew, Labor and Imperial Democracy in Prewar Japan (University of
California Press, 1991)

Gordon, Andrew, The Evolution of Labor Relations in Japan: Heavy Industry, 1853-1955 (Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University, 1985).

Hane, Mikiso, Peasants, Rebels, and Outcastes: The Underside of Modern Japan
(Pantheon Books, 1982).

Hane, Mikiso, Reflections on the Way to the Gallows: Rebel Women in Prewar Japan
(University of California Press, 1988).

Havens, Thomas, “Japan’s Enigmatic Election of 1928,” Modern Asian Studies 11.4
(October 1977).

Keene, Donald, “Proletarian Literature of the 1920s,” in his Dawn to the West: Japanese Literature of the Modern Era (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1984).

Keene, Donald, “Japanese Literature and Politics in the 1930s,” Journal of Japanese
2.2 (Summer 1976), pp. 225-48.

Kinzley, W. Dean, Industrial Harmony in Modern Japan: The Invention of a Tradition
(Routledge, 1991).

Kobayashi Takiji, “The Factory Ship” and “The Absentee Landlord,” translated by
Frank Motofuji (University of Washington Press, 1973).

Large, Stephen, The Yūaikai, 1912-1919: The Rise of Labor in Japan (Monumenta
Nipponica Monographs, 1972).

Large, Stephen, Organized Workers and Socialist Politics in Interwar Japan
(Cambridge University Press, 1981).

Large, Stephen, ed., Shōwa Japan: Political, Economic and Social History, vol. 1
(Routledge, 1998).

Mackie, Vera, Creating Socialist Women in Japan: Gender, Labour and Activism 1900-
(University of Cambridge Press, 1997).

Mackie, Vera, Feminism in Modern Japan: Citizenship, Embodiment and Sexuality
(Cambridge University Press, 2003).

Scalapino, Robert, The Early Japanese Labor Movement: Labor and Politics in a
Developing Society
(University of California Press, 1984).

Shea, G. T., Leftwing Literature in Japan (University of Tokyo Press, 1964).

Steinhoff, Patricia, Tenko: Ideology and Social Integration in Prewar Japan (Garland,

Totten, George. The Social Democratic Movement in Prewar Japan (Yale University
Press, 1966).

Totten, George, “Labor and Agrarian Disputes in Japan Following World War I,”
Economic Development and Cultural Change 9.1, part 2 (1960), pp. 187-212.

Tsurumi, Kazuko, “Six Types of Change in Personality: Case Studies of Ideological
Conversion in the 1930s,” in her Social Change and the Individual (Princeton University Press, 1966).

Waswo, Ann, “The Origins of Tenant Unrest,” in B. Silberman and H. D. Harootubnian,
Japan in Crisis (Princeton University Press, 1974).


“Political Protest in Interwar Japan l” was developed by
Visualizing Cultures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
and presented on MIT OpenCourseWare.

MIT Visualizing Cultures:
John W. Dower
Project Director
Emeritus Professor of History

Shigeru Miyagawa
Project Director
Professor of Linguistics
Kochi Prefecture-John Manjiro Professor of Japanese Language and Culture

Ellen Sebring
Creative Director

Scott Shunk
Program Director

Andrew Burstein
Media Designer

In collaboration with:
Christopher Gerteis
Author, essay
Lecturer in the History of Contemporary Japan
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

Floris van Swet
Research and translation, essay


MIT Visualizing Cultures received generous funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Henry Luce Foundation, the Getty Foundation, Japan Foundation's Council for Global Partnership, National Endowment for the Humanities, and MIT's d'Arbeloff Fund for Innovation in Undergraduate Education and MIT Microsoft-funded iCampus project.



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