Chapter 23: Reducing a Line Integral to an Ordinary Integral and Related Reductions



Though a line integral on a path P is most easily evaluated when the integrand can be expressed as a gradient and the integral becomes a difference between values of a function at the endpoints of P, we here consider the process for reducing line integrals to ordinary ones. We also describe how to make a Surface flux integral into a two dimensional integral over an area in the plane.


23.1  Making a Line Integral into an Ordinary Integral

23.2  Examples

23.3  Practical Comments

23.4  Multiple Integrals and Area Integrals